Jumat, 06 Agustus 2010

EXAMPLE OF LESSON PLAN , STUDENT WORKSHEETS, AND ASSESSMENT…..


LESSON PLAN

School                         : SMA N 2 Yogyakarta
Grade/Semester           : XI/2
Subject                        : Biology
Topic                           : Structure and Function of Cell
Time Allocation          : 30 minutes

A.  Standard of Competence
1.      Understanding structure and function of cell as smallest unit of life
 
B.  Basic Competency
1.1.Describes the chemist components, structure, and function of cell as smallest unit of life
1.2.Identify the organelles of animal and plant cell
1.3.Compare the transport mechanism in cell membrane (diffusion, osmosis, active transport, endositosis, exositosis)

C.  Indicators to Achieve the Competence
1.2.1.      Mention the organelles of the animal and plant cell
1.2.2.      Identify the characteristic of each organell in animal and plant cell
1.2.3.      Describe the function of each organell in animal and plant cell 
1.2.4.      Compare the characteristic of animal and plant cell based on structure and function of their organelles in cell

D.  Learning Objectives
In the end of the lesson, students are able to explain the structure and function of each organell in animal and plant cell
 


E.  Teaching Materials
Structure and Function of Organelles in Plant and Animal Cell :
1.      Structure of Each Organelles in Plant and Animal Cell
2.      Function of Each Organelles in Plant and Animal Cell

F.     Approach and Method
Approach    : Deductive approach
Method       : Brain Storming and Lecturing
Focus          : Listening Skills

G.  Teaching and Learning Process
1.      Pre Teaching
a.       Praying
b.      Greeting
c.       Asking student condition
d.      Checking students attendance
e.       Recalling the last week materials
f.       Stating the topic
g.      Stating the learning objectives
2.      While Teaching
a.       Students get a paper with question and answer column representing the summary of a materials. Listening to the teacher’s reading the text, students answer the question in the paper based on the content of the text.
b.      Students, guided by the teacher, discuss the correct answer. Teachers asking students to read their answer and after that teacher give evaluate to the student’s answer.
c.       Teacher explain more about structure and function of organelles in plant and animal cell   



3.      Post Teaching
a.       Evaluating result of the lesson by show animal and plant cell picture then asking some students to explain the structure and function of each organell in animal and plant cell
b.      Giving homework to students, reading the textbook about transport in cell membrane
c.       Greeting

H.  Learning Resources
1.      Campbell and Reece Biologi Jilid I. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga.
2.      BSCS Blue Version

I.     Assessment
Written Competency Test with Essay Question Type
Standart for giving value :
Number
Score
Total  Score
1-15
15 x 2
30
16-17
2   x 5
10
18-19
2   x 5
10
20-21
2   x 5
10
22-25
4   x 10
40
Total
100 Score

                                                                        Yogyakarta, 24 March 2010
           Approved By                                                           Teacher,
     SMA N 2 Yogyakarta



       Dr. Timbul Mulyana                                              Riza Sativani Hayati
NIP. 19590914 198803 1 003                                    NIP. 19900805 201208 2 003


STUDENTS WORKSHEETS
Listen the text reading by your teacher and answer the question !
Question 1
Mention three main parts of cell !
1.      ....................................
2.      ....................................
3.      ....................................
Cytoplasm consist of two parts, namely
1.     ....................................
2.    ....................................., kind of this parts are :
a.       ...............................
b.      ...............................
c.       ...............................
d.      ...............................
e.       ...............................
There are many differences between animal and plant cell, such as :
1.    The cell wall present in ........................ cell, but there isn’t present in .................... cell
2.    To produce energy, in plant cell there is ........................and in animal cell there is ......................


TEXT TO LISTENING
 Cell as smallest unit of life, have three main parts to run the function, namely cell membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm. Cell membrane in plants and prokaryotes is usually covered by a cell wall. This membrane serves to separate and protect a cell from its surrounding environment. The cell nucleus is the most conspicuous organelle found in a eukaryotic cell. It houses the cell's chromosomes, and is the place where almost all DNA replication and RNA synthesis (transcription) occur. In the cytoplasm there are protoplasm and organelles. Protoplasm is the fluid part of cell. In protoplasm, there are many of ion and molecules. The solid parts in cytoplasm called organelles. The organelles of cell such as endomembrane system, mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, vacuoles, and cytoskeleton. In Endomembrane system there are lysosomes, peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum, and golgi apparatus. One of differences between plant and animal cell is to produce energy plant cell have chloroplast and in animal cell have mitochondria. 

Assessment
Written Competency Test with Essay Question Type

Answer the question please !
Question
Answer
Identify the organelles of this cell based on the number !

1.      ......................
2.      ......................
3.      ......................
4.      ......................
5.      ......................
6.      ......................
7.      ......................
8.      ......................
9.      ......................
10.  ......................
11.  ......................
12.  ......................
13.  ......................
14.  ......................
15.  This is the structure of .................. cell
Explain the structure and function of this organell !
16.  Structure of this organell :
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
17.  Function this organell :
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
Explain the structure and function of this organelles !
18.  Structure of this organell :
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
19.  Function this organell :
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
Explain the differences between animal and plant cell based on their organelles!
Picture 1 :

 Picture 2 :
20.  Picture 1 is the picture of ........................ cell
21.  Picture 2 is the picture of .......................... cell
22.  The differences of plant and animal cell based on their vacuoles are ........................................................................................................
....................................................
23.  The differences of plant and animal cell based on their plasma membrane are ........................................................................................................
....................................................
24.  The differences of plant and animal cell based on their energy producer are ........................................................................................................
....................................................
....................................................
25.  The differences of plant and animal cell based on their organelles components are .................................................... .................................................... ....................................................
....................................................



ATTACHMENT
Teaching Material :
Structure and Function of Organelles in Plant and Animal Cell

Cell as smallest unit of life, have three main parts to run the function, namely cell membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm.Cell membrane in plants and prokaryotes is usually covered by a cell wall. This membrane serves to separate and protect a cell from its surrounding environment and is made mostly from a double layer of lipids (hydrophobic fat-like molecules) and hydrophilic phosphorus molecules. Hence, the layer is called a phospholipids bilayer. It may also be called a fluid mosaic membrane. The cell nucleus is the most conspicuous organelle found in a eukaryotic cell. It houses the cell's chromosomes, and is the place where almost all DNA replication and RNA synthesis (transcription) occur. In the cytoplasm there are protoplasm and organelles. Protoplasm is the fluid part of cell. There are many of ion and molecules. In protoplasm there are several types of organelles within an animal and plant cell.The organelles of cell such as endomembrane system, mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, vacuoles, and cytoskeleton. In Endomembrane system there are lysosomes, peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum, and golgi apparatus.
Structure and function of each organelles have any differences. Between one organell to another organell has own specifiication :
1.    Mitochondria
Mitochondria play a critical role in generating energy in the eukaryotic cell. Mitochondria generate the cell's energy by oxidative phosphorylation, using oxygen to release energy stored in cellular nutrients (typically pertaining to glucose) to generate ATP. Mitochondria multiply by splitting in two. Respiration occurs in the cell mitochondria.

2.    Chloroplasts
It contains a permeable outer membrane, a less permeable inner membrane, a intermembrane space, and an inner section called the stroma. However, the chloroplast is larger than the mitochondria. It needs to have the larger size because its membrane is not folded into cristae. Also the inner membrane is not used for the electron transport chain. Instead it contains the light-absorbing system, the electron transport chain, and ATP synthetase in a third membrane that forms a series of flattened discs, called the thylakoids.
3.    Ribosomes
The ribosome is plays a key role is the synthesis of protein. When the polypeptide chain is growing it must be kept aligned with the mRNA molecule so that each codon still hooks up with the tRNA molecule. After the addition of one amino acid the chain is moved down three codons. This is done using a large complex composed of protein and RNA, called the ribosome. Ribosomes consist of one large unit and one small unit. Half of the eukaryotic ribosomal weight comes from RNA. The ribosome contains a groove that guides the polypeptide chain and another groove that holds the mRNA molecule.
4.    Vacuoles
The vacuole is used only in plant cells. It is responsible for maintaining the shape and structure of the cell. Plant cells don't increase in size by expanding the cytosplasm, rather they increase the size of their vacuoles. The vacuole is a large vesicle which is also used to store nutrients, metabolites, and waste products. The pressure applied by the vacuole, called turgor, is necessary to maintain the size of the cell. If turgor is lost the cell becomes flaccid. The vacuole typically is 50% of the volume of the cell, yet it can take up to 95% of the cell!



5.    Cytoskeleton
Eukaryotic cells have a wide variety of distinct shapes and internal organizations. Cells are capable of changing their shape, moving organelles, and in many cases, move from place to place. This requires a network a protein filaments placed in the cytoplasm known as the cytoskeleton. The two most important protein filaments are called the actin filaments and the microtubules. The actin is responsbile for contraction (like in muscles) and the microtubules are for structural strength.
6.    Endomembrane system
Endomembrane system consist of lysosomes, peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum, and golgi apparatus.
a.       Lysosome
The lysosome is a membranous bag which contains hydrolytic enzymes that are used to digest macromolecules. The lysosome contains over 40 enzymes, some of which are the proteases, nucleases, and phopholipases. These enzymes optimally work at a pH of 5 (acidic), so should these enzymes leak out they would cause minimal damage to the cytoplasm. These enzymes, called hydrolases, are made in the ER and transported to the lysosome by the Golgi complex, using a vesicle. Should certain hydrolases be missing from the cells, serious illness can occur because of a buildup of molecules which cannot be digested by the lysosome. These extra molecules can interfere with normal cell functions, causing problems.
b.      Endoplasmic Reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is repsonible for the production of the protein and lipid components of most of the cell's organelles. The ER contains a great amount of folds - but the membrane forms a single sheet enclosing a single closed sac. This internal space is called the ER lumen. The ER is additionally responsible for moving proteins and other carbohydrates to the Golgi apparatus, to the plasma membrane, to the lysosomes, or wherever else needed. There are two types of ER - rough, which is coated with ribosomes, and smooth, which isn't. Rough ER is the site of protein synthesis. The smooth ER is where the vesicles carrying newly synthesized proteins (from the rough ER) are budded off.
c.       Golgi Apparatus
The Golgi complex is composed of numerous sets of smooth cisternae, which are coated with lipid membranes. Each disc-shaped cisternae forms a structure that resembles a stack of plates, called a Golgi stack. The Golgi complex contains a great number of vesicles. These vesicles are used to send molecules to the cellular membrane, where they are excreted. There are also larger secretory vesicles, which are used for selective excretion. The Golgi is principally responsible for directing molecular traffic in the cell - nearly all molecules pass through the Golgi complex at some point in their existence. The sorting is mediated by the vesicles. When proteins bind with their appropriate receptor on the vesicle, they are encoated in the vesicle and transported away.
Based on their organelles in animal and plant cell, there are some differences between animal and plant cell :
Number
Parts of Cell
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
1
a.       Cell Wall
b.      Cell Membran
-
2
Nucleus


2
Cell Organelles
a.   Endoplasmic Reticulum
b.   Ribosome
c.   Peroksisom
d.  Golgi Apparatus
e.   Mitochondria
f.    Lysosome
g.   Chloroplasts
h.   Vacuoles

√ (Diktiosom)

-
-  or small
√   : Present in Cell
-    : Not Present in Cell




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