Influences of Earthworm (Pontoscolex corethrurus Fr Mull) Inoculation to The Characteristic of Physical and Chemical the Earth and The Growth of Green Beans (Vigna radiata L.Wilczek) Walet Variety
Adianto1) ,Diah Utami Safitri2) dan Nuryati Yuli 2)
The effect of earthworm inoculation on soil physical and chemical properties and the growth of mung bean in experimental pot had been studied. Earthworms were inoculated at four different densities i.e. 0 (Co), 4 (C4), 8 (C8) and 12 (C12) individuals in pots containing clay : humus : sand (5 :3 : 2) dry weight and kept for 120 days. Cow dung were applied ad libitum. The control (without earthworms inoculation) consisted of two groups ; with and without dung (Co and Co+). The results of this experiment indicated that the rate of microorganism respiration was highest in C12 treatment and significantly different (p < 0,05) from Coand Co+. Cellulose decomposition level was also highest in C12 treatment compared to Co. Soil physical analysis indicated that total porosity increased significantly in C8 and C12 treatment compared to Co and Co+ . Water permeability increased significantly in C4 treatment compared to Co. Soild chemical analysis indicated that soil pH increased due to earthworm inoculation. Organic Carbon decrease in accordance with the increasing number of earthworm, the highest decreaseng in C12 treatment and the lowest in Co. The N, P, K, Ca and Mg level increased in all treatments compared to Co. The plant height increased significantly in C8 and C12 treatment compared to Coand Co+. Furthermore plant biomass increased significantly in treatment C12 compared to Coand Co+. It can be concluded that inoculation with earthworms could change the soil physical and chemical properties and improved conditions for the growth of mung bean.
Keywords: earthworm, soil physicchemical, plant growth
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ANALYSIS
The population in here are :
a. The quantity of earthworm (Pontoscolex corethrurus Fr Mull) in pot
b. Green Beans (Vigna radiata L.Wilczek)
The sample in here are :
a. the differences the densities of earthworm (Pontoscolex corethrurus Fr Mull). There are :
- 4 individuals of earthworm (Pontoscolex corethrurus Fr Mull) in pots
- 8 individuals of earthworm (Pontoscolex corethrurus Fr Mull) in pots
- 12 individuals of earthworm (Pontoscolex corethrurus Fr Mull) in pots
b. Green Beans (Vigna radiata L.Wilczek) Walet Variety growthed in pots with variation inoculation of earthworm
3. Sampling Techniques
Sampling Techniques that used in this experimental research is non-random sampling with purposive sampling techniques.
Climate Effects on Plant Range Distributions and Community Structure of
Pacific Northwest Prairies
From University of OREGON
Pacific Northwest (PNW) prairies are imperiled ecosystems that contain a large number of plant species with high fidelity to this habitat, many of which have northern and/or southern range limits from southwestern Oregon/northern California to Washington. The few remaining high-quality prairies harbor a number of sensitive, rare, and endangered plant species that may be lost with climate change. We are experimentally manipulating temperature and precipitation in three upland prairie sites along a natural climate gradient from southwestern Oregon to central-western Washington to determine (1) how future climate change will affect the range distribution of native plant species, and (2) how viable current restoration practices are under future climate change. Our specific objectives are to determine: • the extent to which predicted climate change will affect the distribution, abundance, and fitness of native and exotic grasses and forbs in PNW prairies, • to what extent and in what ways species’ sensitivity to climate change differ as they near the warm and cool ends of their current ranges, • what life history stages (i.e., germination and establishment, growth to maturity, and reproduction) are most sensitive to climate change in a group of key indicator native species, • the robustness of current restoration techniques and suites of species to changing climate, • and if there are key ecosystem feedbacks, e.g., nutrient availability, that determine the viability of the range-limited species and restored communities under changing climate? We are testing these objectives by experimentally increasing temperature by 3 ºC with overhead infrared lamps and increasing precipitation by 25% from September through June in a full factorial design at three upland prairie sites along an approximately 600 km gradient of temperature and precipitation. The three sites are in the Illinois River Valley in southwestern Oregon, the Willamette Valley in central western Oregon, and the Puget Trough in central-western Washington. Treatment effects will be examined on the extant vegetation and on 12-15 native grass and forb species that have their northern and/or southern range limits at, or near, one or more of the sites. The same 12-15 species will be seeded into each experimental plot and will comprise a group of ‘indicator’ species of future climatic effects on the abundance and distribution of other native prairie species in the PNW. The range-limited species will be planted in a matrix of approximately 25 native species that are commonly used in the restoration of PNW prairies but that are not necessarily range limited, thus allowing the project to examine climate effects on dominant species and species of particular interest. The same matrix native species will be planted at all sites. All plots will be restored using practices typical of local conservation organizations, including the application of herbicide, mowing, and raking, before any plants are seeded. This restoration treatment will reduce but not eliminate current exotic species in the plots, and we will examine the competitive interactions and succession trajectories of the native and exotic species within each of the treatments. Restoration of the plots will begin in May-June, 2009, and planting will occur in the fall of 2009. We will perform an extensive demographic life cycle analysis of the range-limited species, including measurement of treatment effects on establishment, growth, survival, reproduction and phenology. Additionally, we will measure plant community structure, above- and belowground net primary productivity, seasonal soil nutrient availability, soil organic carbon, continuous soil and air temperature, canopy temperature, and soil moisture in each plot. Future climate change will almost certainly impact the distributions and abundances of species, with the largest effects on rare species, species with specialized habitats, and species with relatively constrained ranges. Current modeling approaches are inadequate to provide robust predictions of how climate will impact species range distributions and abundances. The proposed combination of a natural climatic gradient, four experimental climate treatments, and planting a common set of species within and beyond their current ranges, will provide a rich dataset to examine the effects of climate change on the distribution and abundance of plants within PNW prairies. This includes an examination of the likelihood of plant species near the limits of their current distribution to persist in their current habitats or to expand beyond their current range limits. We will also examine how robust current restoration techniques and plant assemblages are to future climate change. Our results will provide an important case study of how climate change will affect native biodiversity in other grassland ecosystems with high abundances of exotic species.
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ANALYSIS
The population in here are Pacific Northwest Prairies
The sample in this research are the three upland prairie sites along an approximately 600 km gradient of temperature and precipitation. The three sites are in the Illinois River Valley in southwestern Oregon, the Willamette Valley in central western Oregon, and the Puget Trough in central-western Washington.
3. Sampling Techniques
Sampling Techniques that used in this experimental research is random sampling with simple random sampling techniques.
Identification and Pathogenicity Root Diseases on Acacia mangium Willd
Illa Anggraeni and Erdy Santoso
The occurrence of root disease has been found on one year old A. mangium plantation at Cikole Experimental Garden, Lembang- North Bandung. The plantation was drying and even killed in relatively short time. Therefore root disease on A. mangium needs attention especially during seedling up to sapling levels. To identify effective and efficient method of root disease preventation and control, basic research was necessary to be carried out, covering types of pathogen and its phatogenicity.
Objective of this research was to identify the pathogen as cause of root disease on A. mangium and its pathogenicity on some age levels of seedlings. Base on macroscopic appearance that covers symptoms of host in the field, Koch Postulate Test and microscopic observation i.e growth colony on PDA medium, that can be used to determine special characteristic of fungi, the cause of root disease on one year old A. mangium plantation was Cylindrocladium sp. fungi.
Observation result on pathogenicity of Cylindrocladium sp. fungi, showed high virulence on 7, 14, 30 days old seedlings, that showed damping-off symptom, with mortality percentage of 100 %, 79 % and 56,33 % respectively. Due to high mortality of 7 days old on seedlings treatment for prevention and control should be done since sowing of seeds up to young plantation in the field.
Kata kunci : Acacia mangium Wild., Pathogenicity, Cylindrocladium s.,Root disease)
OBSERVATION RESEARCH ANALYSIS
Population that used in this research is plant of Acacia mangium Wild
Sample that used in this research are Acacia mangium Wild plantation at Cikole Experimental Garden, Lembang- North Bandung
3. Sampling Techniques
In this research, researcher used purposive sapling tecniques of non-random sampling. Because in this research, researcher observed many of plant with unlimited, but have many characteristic. The characteristic are base on macroscopic appearance that covers symptoms of host in the field, Koch Postulate Test and microscopic observation i.e growth colony on PDA medium, that can be used to determine special characteristic of fungi, the cause of root disease on one year old A. mangium plantation was Cylindrocladium sp. fungi.