Jumat, 01 Juli 2011

EXAMPLE OF LESSON PLAN 7


LESSON PLAN

Identity of Subject Matter
School                          : SMA Negeri 8 Yogyakarta
Grade/Semester            : XI / II
Service Program           : SBI
Subject                         : Biology
Topic                           : Impact of Smoking 
Time Allocation            : 20 Minutes

Standard of Competence
3.  Explaining structure and function of human and certain animal organ, anomaly aor disease that may occur and their implication in sains, environment, technology, and society.  

Basic Competency
3.4. Explaining relationship between structure, function, and process with anomaly or
      diseases that may occur in human and certain animal respiration system (example :
      bird)

Indicator to Achieve the Competence
1.      Explaining composition of cigarette that give negative effect for human respiration system
2.      Demonstrating that cigarette give negative effect for human respiration system
3.      Explaining negative kind of disease as effect of smoking on human respiration system

Learning Objectives
Students are able to explain negative effect of smoking for human respiration system



Teaching Materials
The effects of smoking on human health are serious and in many cases, deadly. There are approximately 4000 chemicals in cigarettes, hundreds of which are toxic. The ingredients in cigarettes affect everything from the internal functioning of organs to the efficiency of the body's immune system. The effects of cigarette smoking are destructive and widespread. Ingredients of cigarettes can explain below :

The respiratory system is literally the lifeblood of the human body. It supplies the blood with oxygen, one of the basic elements of life. The effects of smoking on respiration can be detrimental. When you smoke, you inhibit the natural flow of oxygen, and each cigarette delivers some 4,000 toxic substances to the respiratory system, thus impairing its function indefinitely.

Tobacco first attacks the trachea and cilia

With one drag on a cigarette over 4000 chemicals are released into almost every system of your body. Nicotine is only one of the many chemicals that are working against your entire body. When the chemicals enter the mouth and trachea, it irritates them and leaves minor chemical burns as it travels down. This is the reason many people complain about sore throats and pain when they first began smoking. Many of these chemical compounds have cancer-causing properties, as well as their harsh chemical make ups. Given enough burns on the trachea and voice box, it will scar them for life, giving the smoker the "smoker's voice" and cancer of the throat as these chemicals slowly burn a path. When this chemical cocktail spills into your lungs as a breath of air, it immediately attacks the cilia. These little hairs are burned and stunted, and are no longer able to do their job.

 

Destruction of the lung

With the cilia unable to carry out the toxins, the full 4000 chemicals enter directly into the lungs. These chemicals immediately attack everything they come into contact with. With the vital cells damaged and dying, cancer fills in the holes. The alveoli, being also burned and scarred, looses the ability to take in air and move air through the body. This is classic emphysema. The longer the chemicals are introduced, the more the lung will be eaten and burnt away. Finally, the lung looks like it has been chemically burned, as it has been
Some of the long-term effects are outlined below.

1.    Lung Cancer

According to the American Cancer Society, smoking is responsible for about 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. In addition, it's one of the most difficult cancers to treat.

2.    COPD

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The American Lung Association says that smoking is the primary risk factor, causing 80 to 90 percent of COPD deaths.

3.    Chronic Cough

Often called "smoker's cough," a chronic cough may indicate respiratory damage, and smoking delays the immune system's response.

4.    Shortness of Breath

Obstruction of the air passages from smoking commonly leads to shortness of breath. Lack of oxygen can inhibit everyday activities, and eventually lead to heart disease.


5.    Throat Cancer

Tobacco use increases your risk of throat cancer, which can cause extreme difficulty eating, drinking and talking.


Other Smoking Effects on the Human Body
1.    Toxic ingredients in cigarette smoke travel throughout the body, causing damage in several different ways.
2.    Nicotine reaches the brain within 10 seconds after smoke is inhaled. It has been found in every part of the body and in breast milk.
3.    Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, preventing affected cells from carrying a full load of oxygen.
4.    Cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) in tobacco smoke damage important genes that control the growth of cells, causing them to grow abnormally or to reproduce too rapidly.
5.    The carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene binds to cells in the airways and major organs of smokers.
6.    Smoking affects the function of the immune system and may increase the risk for respiratory and other infections.
7.    There are several likely ways that cigarette smoke does its damage. One is oxidative stress that mutates DNA, promotes atherosclerosis, and leads to chronic lung injury. Oxidative stress is thought to be the general mechanism behind the aging process, contributing to the development of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and COPD.
8.    The body produces antioxidants to help repair damaged cells. Smokers have lower levels of antioxidants in their blood than do nonsmokers.
9.    Smoking is associated with higher levels of chronic inflammation, another damaging process that may result in oxidative stress.

Approach and Methods
Approach         : Deductive
Methods           : Lecturing, Demonstration, Discussion 

Teaching and Learning Process
Time Allocation : 20 Minutes
Teaching Process
Techer Activities
Students Activities
Time
(minutes)
Life Skills Aspects that Developed
Opening State  
1.    Greeting and Asking Students Condition
2.    Give video about many human who smoke  
3.    Give question to student  knowing the impact of smoking
4.    Stating the Topic and Objectives
1.      Watch video about many human who smoke
3

Main State
1.    Do demonstration about the effect of cigarette components to human respiration systems
2.    Divided the class into two group
3.    Give students worksheet to each group 
4.    Help students answer discussions in student worksheet
5.    Give clarification based on demonstration and discussions result
6.    Explain components of cigarettes that give negative effect for human respiration system with picture
7.    Explain how smoking can give negative effect for human respiration system with video
1.      Pay attention teacher demonstration
2.      Make 2 group (each groups consists of 2-3 students).
3.    Each group will accept worksheet
4.    Answer discussions in student worksheet based on teacher demonstration
5.    Pay attention what teacher’s say in clarification and explanation
14
1.      Analyses
2.      Braveness
3.      Express their opinion
Closing State
1.    Encourage students to make conclution
2.    Gives assignment for students to make a poster for each group that the poster motivate human to stop smoking.
1.    Conclude learning result
3


Learning Resources

Anonim. 2011. Effects of Smoking on Respiration. Download from http://www.ehow.com/facts_4829730_effects-smoking-respiration.html 9 May 2011 17.00 wib

Suyitno,dkk. 2007. Biology2 for Senior High School Year XI Bilingual Based on KTSP 2006. Jakarta: Penerbit Yudhistira.

Terry, Martin. 2008. The Effects of Smoking on Human Health. Download from http://quitsmoking.about.com/bio/Terry-Martin-9703.htm on 9 May 2011 17.00 wib

Wiyati, Jati. 2007. Aktif Biologi Untuk SMA/MA Kelas XI. Jakarta: Penerbit Ganeca Exact.

Assessment
Instrumen  to assess the process of observation and discussion
Psicomotor Accesment
Numb.
Aspect To Assess
Value
1
Each group doing discussions correctly

2
Each group explain components of cigarettes that can give negative effect for human respiration system

3
Each group can explain how smoking can give negative effect for human respiration system

4
Each group understand meaning of teacher demonstration

Assessment Guide
Score of Each Number
Total
1
2
3
4
25
25
25
25
100

Afective Accesment
Numb.
Aspect To Assess
Value
1
Critical

2
Dicipline

3
Express Their Opinion

Assessment Guide
Score of Each Number
Total
1
2
3
35
30
35
100

                                                                                   
            Approved
Lecturer of Microteaching                                                            Biology Teacher


       (Suratsih, M.Si.)                                                                (Riza Sativani Hayati)



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